Worked All States CW Goal:
My goal for 2019 is to work every state using CW. It is a celebration for all the progress I made last year to learn Morse code. Ideally, QSO's will be confirmed through LoTW so I can get an official award. Any method of confirmation is appreciated!
I plan on regularly getting on the air and participating in contests. This spring and summer I will go portable and activate several state parks with POTA. (Parks on the Air is an excellent opportunity to enjoy the great outdoors and amateur radio!)
I am anticipating that Alaska and North Dakota will be my most challenging states. It took quite a while to work and get them confirmed using JT65 and FT8!
As I make progress, I will periodically update the graphic. If you would like to help me, I am always up for a scheduled contact. Feel free to email me!
First Book in Morse code:
Patience finally paid off! And now I have a full-length book to listen to in Morse code over the coming months! After an expansive seven month journey, I listened to the first hour of it today.
Last fall I had success listening to The Cat in the Hat. It was a delightful experience. Afterward, I made a long term goal of being able to read a full-length book in Morse code at 40wpm. Since that time, I have been practicing Morse code every day.
To make my goal happen, I was not interested in listening to public domain books from the turn of the 20 century or earlier. So I had to find a way of scanning in an entire book. Coincidentally a book scanner became available on Indiegogo for $175, which is less than half of the retail price of another model CZUR sells on Amazon. So I went for it. I didn't think it would take seven months to get here! Their original estimate was three months. It turned out they had a ton of problems scaling up. They were not anticipating needing to manufacture 10,000+ units.
I spent quite a bit of time trying to find just the right book. I wanted a science fiction book, but the word choice couldn't be too extensive, and the sentence structure had to be reasonably simple. Constantly encountering new words in every sentence is a bit frustrating, so an easier read is what I was looking for. I considered The Name of the Wind by Patrick Rothfuss. While at the book store in the mall, a helpful customer recommended it to me. I nearly got it, but at 662 pages, the length seemed excessive for my first real book in Morse code.
Undeterred, I went to the library to check out the young reader's section. Having never looked for a book at the Manhattan Public Library, it took a bit of time to find just the right book. But I finally found it — The Thirteenth Child by Patricia Wrede. It is about a young girl who finds herself out on an old west-like frontier crossed with the fantasy of magic. It is highly rated for the demographic and it is only 320 pages!
Once we got home, it took about an hour to scan the book and correct the OCR (optical character recognition) errors. It took another hour to extend my script Perl and Python scripts, which is used to convert the text of the book into Morse Code. I had to deal with some peculiarities. Once everything was ready to go, I kicked off the program and let it run overnight. It ended up taking 13 hours to create five versions of the book at 25, 28, 30, 32, and 35wpm. The 28wpm version is 118 hours long!!!
I ran into some unexpected problems trying to transfer the audiobook to my phone. Some trivial corruption had taken place in the process of concatenating 11,000 individual MP3 files together. To correct the problem, I ended up converting each of the final MP3s to AAC and then repackaged the AAC files into M4A files. After a few more hours of processing, I was able to get it on my phone and finally hear the sweet sounds of success.
First CQ WW WPX Contest:
It was fun and a grand experience seeing James work one station after another all across the world. He worked 501 stations while I did the logging! I have no idea how he got by on so little sleep! But I learned a lot and know what I need to work on to gain proficiency in contesting.
It was also great meeting James in person for the first time. It isn't often that I find someone who is so excited and passionate about CW.
Two years ago, I made a routine FT8 contact with James on 40 meters. I could not have known at the time, but it was a noteworthy moment that would lead to a great amateur radio friendship. We have exchanged numerous emails, and I have had the opportunity of contributing to the Grayson County Amateur Radio Club Newsletter in Texas.
As I have progressed on my Morse code journey and gained proficiency, James has taken an interest in my progress. I would like to think he has seen the same kind of passion that has led him to many years of passionate CW operations.
I love the Morserino-32! It is a multifunctional Morse code device that can be used as a practice trainer, keyer, file player, and Morse code decoder. It also functions as a CW Transceiver using the LoRa (Long Range WiFi) on 430 Mhz, which allows nearby Morserino-32 users to practice with each other. I would not hesitate to recommend it to others. I have had it a couple of months now and use it every day for Morse code practice! (See this short video for a quick demonstration.)
I bought the Morserino-32 for its Echo Trainer (Challenge / Response) functionality. In this mode, you select either random character groups, CW abbreviations, English words, callsigns, or random. You get three attempts to get it right by default. First, it plays a selection. Then you immediately send it back using the built-in capacitance touch paddles or an external paddle. If you get it right, it continues to another round. If you get it wrong, it repeats. If you get it wrong too many times, it shows you the answer and moves on. This functionality enables me to conveniently practice sending.
In my opinion, this is one of the best hardware Morse code trainers on the market. It is 85Euro ($99USD) and ships from Austria. The unit can also run from a battery. Please note that the kit does not ship with a LiPo battery since it is onerous to ship internationally. A set of batteries and charger can be picked up for $20 on Amazon. (The charger is not necessary since the Heltec microcontroller has an onboard trickle charger. If you don't want to purchase a battery, the Moserino-32 can run off of USB.)
Assembling the Morserino-32 is straight forward and took about an hour and a half for me to put together. The assembly instructions are detailed and provide closeup pictures to avoid making mistakes. Most of the parts are surface mount and are already mounted onto the PCB board, but the Heltec microcontroller and larger components are left for the end user to assemble. 1) First, the phone jacks, trimmer resistor, rotary encoder, and sliding and push-button switch are soldered into place. 2) Then the Heltec microcontroller is placed into an IC socket and soldered onto the board. 3) Next, a position for the Lithium-ion battery is determined, and the connecting wire is trimmed and attached to the PCB. 4) Finally, the case is put together and the LoRa antenna connected to the Heltec microcontroller.
If you are a software developer, you will be happy to know that the Morserino-32 is Open Source. You can get the documentation and microcontroller software on GitHub. If I can find the time, I have thought about adding a feature or two.
Parks on the Air Adventure:
Quivira is a hidden gem in south-central Kansas (30 miles to the west of Hutchison). At 22,000 acres, it is the only salt marsh in Kansas and attracts vast numbers of migratory birds. There are 20 miles of roads that closely wind around the water and afford excellent opportunities to view wildlife on your own personal safari. The salt marsh is created by groundwater percolating up from salt deposits near the surface. Some parts of the marsh have salt concentrations high enough to support salt-tolerant plants. Coronado even visited the area in 1541 in search of gold!
Parks on the Air is an awesome program that brings together the great outdoors and amateur radio! The goal is to make a minimum of 10 contacts with other amateur radio operators while enjoying fresh air, wildlife, and beautiful scenery. A month ago, I realized that there was a perfect spot to set up and play radio. At the head of Migrants Mile (a paved .75 mile trail midway in the refuge), there is an open parking lot next to Park Smith Lake. It is beautiful, quiet, and spacious. I made plans to supply the power and antenna, while Greg would provide the radio and antenna tuner.
Wherever challenges are encountered, ingenuity is not far behind! Once we arrived and began to set up, things did not go according to plan. I provided half of the gear, while my uncle had provided the rest.
1) We quickly discovered that we didn't bring along the tool bag. Uh, oh! The Grasshopper vertical antenna has three hose clamps holding the segmented pole in place. If we could not extend the antenna, it would be too short and prevent us from getting on the air. With a moment to ponder, I asked Greg if he had any change. He said yes. There were quarters in the dashboard, and they worked for a makeshift flat-head screwdriver!
2) Next, we realized that the heavy-duty zip ties needed to be cut. If we could not unroll the antenna radials, we would not be able to transmit using the vertical antenna. We looked and looked, and looked some more. Without success, Greg even tried ripping the zip ties apart with a key. We were stumped. We did not have a pocket knife or anything sharp to cut through the plastic. Eventually, Greg spotted a Cotter Hairpin and realized that he could use it to twist the zip ties until they broke.
3) Then the wind started blowing! The tool bag also had the guy wires to hold the antenna in place and prevent it from toppling over in the wind. Fortunately, the base plate was just big enough to load it down with weight. And the nearby trees provided just enough protection from the wind to get away using 5lbs of dead weight. If it were any windier, we would have had to find heavy rocks.
4) Lastly, we learned that we did not have a way to power the antenna tuner! Without the antenna tuner, there was no way we were going to transmit on that Grasshopper antenna. By design, it is non-resonant on all amateur radio bands! This predicament required carefully looking at what we had and problem-solving together. We ended up with a precarious solution. We took apart the existing power cord for the antenna tuner. That left us with two open wires. We connected each end to another length of wire that had a battery terminal clamp on one side and an Anderson power pole on the end. Finally, we plugged that into an MFJ power box. Fortunately, the break out box included fuses and protected us from a short!
After a lengthy setup, I reached out to Julia, KF8JBB, via text message for an exceptional contact. I met Julia a year ago in my CW Academy Level 2 class. And we have been practicing Morse code once a week for a year. We have tried several times in the past to make a QSO, but have been unsuccessful. She operates QRP and lives in Columbus, Ohio. And while at home in Manhattan, KS, I have a fairly high noise floor. The two circumstances have hindered our efforts. But we wanted to try again before calling CQ and spotting myself on the POTA reflector.
I called out to Julia on 20meters using CW. After several attempts, she texted back asking if I could increase power. She barely heard my signal. I was not optimistic about our chances. I was already transmitting 50 watts, and she was going to come back to me with 10 watts. I upped the power to 100 watts and hoped for the best.
I tried again and got about 20 seconds into calling her when the radio abruptly shut off. What the heck! In our haste to power the antenna tuner, we overlooked the fact that we plugged the transceiver into an outlet on the MFJ power breakout box with a 10 amp fuse! The radio was pulling close to 20amps when I keyed up with 100watts of RF power. Luckily, there was an outlet with a 25amp fuse. With a quick switch of outlets, I was back up and running again.
I called Julia again. This time she heard me! And when she called back to me, I could hear her! We exchanged signal reports and thanked each other for the QSO. I was excited, and Julia was overjoyed. She texted me back and said, "AWESOME!!! Like a Friggin drug. It is the highlight of my weekend already!!" I was also on cloud nine.
After a couple more QSOs, I handed off operations to Greg. He found an open frequency on the upper end of 20 meters and called CQ using SSB. Over the next hour, he made eight contacts. It took a while even though propagation seemed to be reasonably decent. Most operators were giving Greg a signal report of 57 or 59.
Then we took a short break to move the pickup truck into the shade. I reapplied sunscreen and took to the air again using CW. To avoid the on-going contests I set up on the WARC bands. I tried calling CQ on 17meters for a while, but no one came back. So I switched to 30meters and made four more contacts over the next half hour.
By this time, the sun was starting to beat down on us, and my laptop was almost out of power. I switched to SSB on the upper end of 20meters and over the next 15 minutes, I made three more contacts. I was delighted when I crossed the ten QSO's needed to count for a successful park activation. Greg considered getting two more contacts, but creature comforts and home were calling to us.
We drove 2 hours back home and treated ourselves to a well-deserved pizza. Relaxing in the shade and on the patio was great. It had cooled off a little by then. The dogs entertained us as they ran around and begged for a bite of pizza.
Greg and I hope to activate another park in June. We learned valuable lessons and will plan better next time! It was a fun and awesome experience.
OzarkCon QRP Conference:
The atmosphere reminded me of a large family reunion — everyone was exceptionally friendly and social. We made several new friends and were implored to come back next year. It was a treat meeting so many passionate and enthusiastic amateur radio operators.
The conference schedule was jammed packed with sessions and activities. My favorite was the Kit Building session. Toby and I signed up to build the Cricket 40, which is a minimalist 40M crystal controlled CW transceiver. We only had to pay a small additional fee and bring several tools, such as a soldering iron, needle nose pliers, and a tray to protect the table.
By coincidence, I sat next to Joe Eisenberg (K0NEB). That was a neat experience! Joe is an expert kit builder and has written many articles for CQ Magazine over the last ten years! Joe puts together two to three kits every month and writes about them. And because he helps coordinate and oversees group kit building sessions, he was delighted to be a mere participant this time.
Joe flew through the assembly of the Cricket transceiver. Oh my! To say that he is adept at handling a soldering iron would be an understatement. He was more than generous to stop and help me when I had some hesitation on a couple of steps.
Toby and I finished building the Cricket at nearly the same time — nearly 3.5 hours later. It was nearly 11 pm, and I was exhausted by that point. I wasn't confident when I brought my radio up to the front of the room to be tested, but it worked on the first try! And so did Toby's!
My second favorite activity was looking at all the homebrew equipment that was on display in the vendor area. I fell in love with an 80-meter spiral loop antenna that someone had put together. It was a work of art, and it looked as if it could have been made during the early days of AM radio. I was also taken with Bob Heil's (K9EID) Pine Board AM Transmitter Kit. It is renown within some circles in the amateur radio community.
Despite 200 people attending the conference, everyone won a prize! Yes, everyone! I won an 80 meter Low Pass Filter kit. But Toby won the grand prize, an Elecraft KX2!! I don't know how, but I just knew moments before they called out the winning ticket number that either Toby or I was going to win. And sure enough, Toby won! Everyone was delighted with the outcome. Toby is a relatively new ham and has been evaluating several portable HF transceivers over the last few months. Toby had rejected the KX2 because of cost even though it is considered to be one of the very best portable HF transceivers on the market.
Coincidentally, I bought a KX2 just two weeks prior! After the conference, we spent an extra day sightseeing. We packed the day and made the most of every moment. We did a ton of things! I hope to come back again.
K1EL Morse Tutor Board:
I let the fun out of two identical kits, the Morse Tutor Board by K1EL. After a few hours of soldering and assembly, I had both of them working! The manual has clear, but brief instructions on how to assemble the kit. If you have experience with other kits, this one will be a breeze to assemble.
It is a neat little board. The capacitance keying is fantastic and perhaps the best feature! It has a nice tactile feel that is entirely different compared to a paddle. And yet it feels comfortable and natural. I will have to try it on air sometime soon. I don't think it will take too long to master this style of keying. I might even try it while working portable. It is light, and I won't have to worry about it sliding around left and right.
There are a couple of other notable features. 1) With two kits hooked together, you can practice Morse code in person with a friend across the table or room! 2) By yourself, you can practice playing a Simon-like game. The game works by sending one character. You repeat it back. If you are right, it sends the same character, followed by another one. Every time you are right, it adds one character with a maximum of 5 characters. If you get the character sequence wrong, it sends the letter X and starts over with a new character group. 3) The kit can also be used as a keyer with built-in memory functions.
As a follow-up, a couple of months later, I bought and assembled two more! I have given three away as an inexpensive gift. It has been a great way to excite the right person about Morse code.
First CW Contest:
I am thrilled to have participated in my first Morse code contest, the ARRL International DX Contest! It was a great learning experience! I spent several hours searching and pouncing. Next time I will spend more time operating the 2-day event.
I made a total of 15 contacts. Most of them were international — Germany, Scotland, Azores, Bonaire, Belize, Barbados, Jamaica, and Mexico. On my second contact, I spent 10 minutes trying to decode a callsign being sent at 40wpm while listening to a weak signal. I finally figured out that it was 6Y3M! I did not cheat and use the Reverse Beacon Network. That was the highlight of the contest!
I was surprised to work several Hawaiian stations. They were strong, and they heard me on the first try. I am delighted that my callsign is easy to recognize in Morse code even with a weak signal. Almost all of my QSO's were on 20-meters. The noise level was fantastically low at S1, which is unheard of at my home QTH! I made one contact on 40-meters, but I gave up on the lower band after a while. The majority of the stations sounded mushy with the high S8 noise level and low signal strength.
I look forward to the next contest. By all comparisons, many stations will have made 100's if not 1000's of contacts! Some people live for radiosport. For my next one, I will focus on breaking my record of 15 QSOs.
QCX 20m transceiver:
I am excited to have successfully built my first transceiver and made my first QRP contact! There is a long and proud tradition of building your own radio in the amateur radio community. It is was a great learning experience and a lot of fun! It has rekindled my interest in electrical engineering and tinkering.
At $50, the QCX transceiver is one of the cheapest full-featured QRP CW kits on the market. Kits are available with your choice of a single band, 80 through 17m. It has a 200Hz filter, an on-screen S-meter, CW shaping to remove key clicks, and 3 to 5 watts on transmit. It supports split operation and even decodes stronger CW signals! The internal keyer supports iambic and straight keys. And the kit has built-in test equipment to assist in troubleshooting and calibrating the transceiver without additional expensive equipment. Hans Summers (G0UPL) has done a marvelous job in designing this kit! Perhaps the best part is the detailed and clear instruction manual for putting it all together.
My QCX transceiver sat unassembled and in a box for nearly a year! I considered putting it together earlier, but instead, I prioritized learning Morse code starting from no proficiency. (See below for how I learned Morse code and was able to copy at 30wpm in less than a year. I am very appreciative of CW Ops and the opportunity to take their CW Academy Level 2 and 3 classes. They were invaluable!) But enough was enough. The anticipation was mounting! So this winter I set a goal of assembling the QCX. Short days and cold temperatures are a great time to work on indoor projects.
Day 1 - Preparing for the Build:
Before getting too serious, I inventoried the parts and made sure that nothing was missing. Next, I affixed the capacitors, resistors, and other small parts to a sheet of paper and clearly labeled them. This step saves time in locating capacitors and resistors with specific values during the build. And it reduces the likelihood of parts getting lost. Avoid using tape on any components, such as integrated circuits, that are sensitive to ESD (electrostatic discharge).
Then I read through the first part of the manual and discovered that I needed a jeweler's magnifying loupe. As the manual suggests, you will want to inspect and verify each soldering joint closely. It is easy to get a cold soldering joint or accidentally bridge two joints together. While I have had some prior soldering experience, this was the first time soldering so many parts so closely together! I also decided to purchase an antistatic mat and strap.
If you are considering building this radio, you will also need a fine-tipped temperature controlled soldering iron, fine soldering wire, and a PCB holder. While not strictly required, you will want a digital multimeter for checking continuity and a de-soldering tool to correct any mistakes.
Day 2 and 3 - Building:
After I received my shipment of tools, I was ready to begin the project in earnest. And as luck would have it, it was just in time for the weekend!
The first soldering step was to install all of the IC's onto the PCB. This made me a little nervous since it had been several years since I last touched a soldering iron! You have to balance applying just enough heat to the IC pin and PCB pad to avoid a cold solder joint, but not so much heat that you burn up the integrated component. I set the soldering iron to 375C, which required a few seconds of heating to melt the soldering wire in place.
The ATmega328, the primary microcontroller, was a little more difficult to solder in place. It required first soldering the 28-pin DIP socket, and then carefully inserting the chip into its holder. The pins have to be bent gently and just slightly so that the IC can slip into the socket. If you are not careful, it can result in breaking off a pin! The rest of the IC's were relatively a piece of cake since they were soldered directly onto the PCB.
Next, all of the capacitors are soldered in place. I made sure to double and triple check the value of each capacitor and its placement on the PCB before soldering them into place. The jeweler's loupe made it easy to read the tiny print on the capacitors.
Things did not go so smoothly. Difficulty started when I created a cold solder joint. I had trouble getting the leads on one capacitor heated back up to melt the solder quickly enough without excessively heating the component. Turning up the iron 25C to 400C took care of that problem.
Then after the numerous capacitors, I soldered a handful of diodes and two crystals into place. Next, I started to solder the abundance of resisters onto the PCB. Once I got to resistor R12, I did a double take. Wait, what? Despite carefully checking the position of each component before soldering them into place, I discovered I had reversed the position of capacitor C18 and resistor R18! They were firmly soldered into place. What should I do?
For a while, I thought I might have to purchase a new kit and start over!! It was extremely difficult to correct. I slightly damaged the capacitor, but it checked okay — 978pF versus the expected 1nF. I also ruined one of the PCB pads getting them desoldered. So after getting them swapped, I checked and re-checked the electrical conductivity between the traces to the other connecting components from C18 and R18. I was relieved when everything checked out. I was very fortunate! Learn from my mistake. All of the capacitors are annotated on the PCB with a rectangle! C18 and R18 are right next to each other, which is unlike any of the other ones.
Next, I soldered a multitude of components onto the PCB — potentiometers, electrolytic capacitors, transistors, .1" male pin headers, a voltage regulator, and power connector. All of these were straightforward and easy to install. By the time I had gotten to this step, I had put in 15 hours into the build and had 141 components soldered together!
Next, the toroids and transformer need to be assembled and installed onto the PCB. I made sure to stop right before this step and get a good nights rest. These are difficult and critical steps in the build.
The first torrid was the most difficult one to assemble and solder since it was my first one ever. The instruction manual indicates that the number one cause of problems with building kits from QRP Labs is the failure to remove wire enamel before soldering toroids and transformers into place. It is bold and in red! I used fine-grit sandpaper to remove the enamel from the leads coming off the torrid. Before soldering them into place, I used a digital multimeter to ensure continuity between both leads. Then I soldered them in place and re-checked continuity between the two PCB pads. It didn't take too long to repeat the same steps for the remaining three toroids.
Then I took on the granddaddy of build steps — correctly wind and solder the transformer onto the PCB. The manual dedicates seven pages and many diagrams to help you avoid problems! There are four windings on the transformer. They must all be wound in the same direction, and each winding needs to be soldered onto the correct PCB pad.
Despite taking my time with the transformer, I ran into a problem. I didn't scrape enough of the enamel off of the wire on one of the windings! I had significant difficulty getting conductivity on the two leads after I had everything soldiered in place. Persistence and patience with the soldering iron paid off. I was able to burn off the enamel with each lead still partially soldered. It required the highest temperature setting on the iron! Then it was a matter of re-tinning the two leads and soldering them securely to their respective PCB pad.
Finally, I soldered a handful of remaining components into place — the rotary encoder, microswitch, potentiometer, and female header to the LCD module. By the end of Sunday night, I had completed the initial build and was ready for the moment of truth. I was exhausted, but I had to know. As you can see in the video, I plugged in the QCX transceiver and no magic smoke was let out!! The screen was blank, but I was relieved. Hours of work were not in vain!
I spent the next 30 minutes following the manual to initially adjust the contrast on the LCD screen and calibrate the receiver. Before propagation went away on 20-meters for the evening, I hooked up an indoor dipole antenna and was able to catch the end of a CW QSO. I took a break and ate dinner.
Even though the band had died, I called out CQ and confirmed that the transceiver was transmitting a small amount of power. I don't have a QRP watt meter so unfortunately, I cannot accurately see how much power the radio is outputting. However, it appears to be about 1 watt.
The radio isn't perfect. There is a loud clicking sound that occurs randomly when the VFO dial is turned or pushed in. It happens more frequently when I turn up the audio gain more than halfway. It is more of an annoyance than anything. Later, I discovered that the clicking noise is a design flaw which allows RFI generated from updating the LCD to be picked up by the audio amplifier. It doesn't bother me too much.
Day 4 - Testing:
I verified that the transmitter is operational. If you can imagine seeing a night light in my living room from several 1,000 miles away, you can understand why I was delighted and amazed. I estimate that 1 watt of power was making it out from my indoor dipole antenna.
First I tested the radio by calling CQ. After several minutes with no one answering back, I checked the Reverse Beacon Network and confirmed that my signal was making it as far away as Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. My signal wasn't very strong. And only a handful of automated listening stations spotted me. With better band conditions and persistence, I'm sure I will make my first QRP contact with this radio. I am motivated to try again soon!
Next, I tested the built-in WSPR functionality and checked WSPRnet to see who heard me. After two successful test transmissions sent 10 minutes apart, I was being heard as far away as Iceland and Brazil! Propagation was beginning to close up as the sun went down, so I was not surprised to see that I was primarily being heard to the west and southwest within the United States.
I was successful with WSPR, but not on the first try! Initially, I had difficulty finding the right transmitter frequency. Part of it was my fault for not reading the manual, and part of it was a calibration problem with the radio. The published WSPR frequency for 20meters is 14.0956MHz using USB (Upper Side Band) with audio inserted at 1.5KHz. Setting the QCX to that frequency won't work since there is no CW offset. The correct frequency is supposed to be between 14.0970 to 14.0972Mhz. That would be the right. However, the timing of my radio was slightly off by +200Hz (approx). I was finally heard once I set the frequency to 14.0970Mhz. Anything higher and it didn't work.
Once I realized the display frequency was off slightly, I committed to building the corresponding QLG1 GPS Receiver Kit that plugs into the QCX transceiver. It will allow me to finish calibrating the radio and ensure that the displayed frequency is accurate. The timing error comes from slight operating deviations in the 20Mhz and 27Mhz crystals.
Day 5 - Building the GPS Receiver:
Next, I built the $23 QLG1 GPS Receiver Kit. It was not nearly as hard to solder and assemble compared to the QCX 20-meter transceiver! There were far fewer parts. However, the instruction manual could have been slightly better. It is not nearly as detailed as the QCX manual. On the positive side, it is straightforward to assemble the GPS receiver.
I was a little disappointed that the GPS kit did not come with the necessary 4-pin male header and corresponding cable to connect the GPS and QCX transceiver together. So I ordered the parts from Sparkfun for a few dollars and waited until the following weekend to verify that the GPS receiver worked.
Day 6 - Making my first contact:
I was very excited to have made my first contact using the QCX 20-meter transceiver! It was with W6ZE, the Orange County Amateur Radio Club in California. Pretty cool for 1 watt of power! Orange County is 1,991 miles away from Manhattan, KS!
I didn't initially realize that the yearly Winter Field Day contest was going on when I called CQ. Silly me! After a confusing and failed contact, I realized my mistake. I looked up the expected exchange so that I could participate in the contest. Next, I searched the 20-meter band and found a relatively strong station calling CQ WFD. I waited for the right moment and provided my callsign. On the first try, the operator picked up my callsign. I was surprised! He didn't even ask for a repeat on the contest exchange. I'm convinced he was receiving me much more weakly than I was receiving him!
Later I finished calibrating the QCX transceiver. The display frequency was slightly off. The calibration entailed soldering a 4-pin header to the GPS receiver, waiting a little bit for the GPS receiver to lock on to enough satellites to provide a highly accurate 1-second tick, and running through a couple of documented steps on the QCX. The transceiver was able to determine that its 27Mhz crystal was oscillating at 27,004,112 cycles per second while the 20Mhz crystal was oscillating at 20,006,486 cycles per second. That was just enough to cause the displayed frequency to be off in the neighborhood of 200Hz. After the calibration, I used WSPR to confirm the accuracy of the calibration. It appears to be spot on.
On a side note, the GPS receiver worked for the calibration procedure, but it didn't work well enough in my apartment to resolve its location. I placed it next to our sliding glass door. The GPS receiver was able to hear and track more than a dozen satellites at one time. And I gave it more than an hour to resolve its location for the first time. Maybe at some point, I will have to try again when it is dry and warmer, and when I have a portable battery for the transceiver. Perhaps it is a matter of taking it outside to have an unobstructed view of the sky.
Day 7 - Tempt fate?
I am undecided on whether I should try and increase the radio's transmitter power. With the 12 volts I am supplying the transceiver, I should expect 3 watts.
A simple solution is to provide a higher power supply voltage. For context, the graph on the right shows the relationship between power supply voltage and transmitter power. The manual indicates that the transceiver can safely be driven with 15 to 16 volts. Any more voltage and I risk overheating the small BS170 MOSFET transistors. A related option is to short the reverse polarity protection diode (D3 1N5819), which would avoid lowering the supplied voltage by 0.3 to 0.4V.
Another solution is to remove 1 or 2 windings from the Low Pass Filter toroids — L1, L2, and L3. For context, the transceiver uses a class E amplifier. And like all amplifiers, it produces harmonics that must be suppressed to avoid harmful out of band transmissions. A Low Pass Filter is the last stage of the transmitter circuit. It attenuates frequencies greater than the target frequency. It might be the case that the inductors I wound by hand have too high of inductor values. Ideally, I would have measured the inductance values and made any fine adjustments before soldering them onto the PCB. This solution is not without its dangers. As I found out the hard way, removing any component might result in damaging a PCB pad and ruining the radio. The recommended procedure is to desolder the toroid, adjust the winding, and resolder it to the top side of the PCB.
For now, I am happy with the estimated 1 watt of output. Before making any adjustments, I will purchase an accurate QRP RF power meter. The LDG AT-600PROII and its segmented display that I am using do not offer enough precision to evaluate changes made to the QCX.
I had a lot of fun, made new friends, and significantly improved my proficiency in sending and receiving Morse code. I highly recommend the CW Academy! Find out more and signup for free.
I completed Level 2 and 3 CW Academy classes. It was an awesome experience! Thank you, Joe (KK5NA) and all my classmates. I appreciated your advice and patience. And thanks to CW Ops for putting together the CW Academy program. Each year it continues to grow and get better!
After ten months of practice and two academy classes, I can reasonably keyboard-copy Morse code at 30wpm. I routinely practice copying up to 42wpm. I can head-copy common words at 25wpm with extra word spacing. And I can comfortably send pre-composed messages at 27wpm on iambic paddles. Despite that, I have not reached my proficiency goals. I am not as proficient in real-world conditions. I know with practice, I will get there. Morse code is not hard to learn, but it does require a lot of practice. It is like learning to play the piano. Practice. Practice. Practice. Thankfully it takes a lot less time!
A few weeks after my Level 3 Academy class, I was nominated for membership to CW Ops. It was my pleasure to support the organization with a lifetime membership. CW Ops is an international organization working hard to preserve and perpetuate the art of CW. For example, they teach Morse code for free to hundreds of other amateur radio operators through the CW Academy program.
I am also looking forward to giving back and teaching a Level 1 CW Academy class, hopefully, I will find an opportunity to teach in 2019.
First mini-contest (CWT):
I was exhausted after participating in my first Morse code contest. CWT is a mini one hour contest that is held every week. Three times a year at the end of each CW Acadamy session, a special event is held in honor of recent graduates. The speed is kept to a maximum of 20wpm, and the exchange is simplified. These limits help newcomers adjust to the challenge and pace of radio-sport. I took up this opportunity to give it a try!
I made six contacts in that one hour! I had a lot of fun, I struggled, and I learned a lot! I was not prepared for so many people to be transmitting nearly on top of each other. Even on the narrowest filter on my radio, I could frequently hear other people that I wasn't trying to contact. This made it difficult. It was like listening to a single voice in a crowded room. The extra challenge was the hurried nature of the contacts. I had not experienced that frenzied rush before. Lastly, I stayed a little too long on 40 meters when 80 meters appears to have been a better choice — band conditions were better, and there were more people to work. I did not check the other bands until the last 10 minutes of the hour. I will try again soon!
I had to laugh a little at the end of the contest. Literally, dozens of people stopped transmitting within seconds of each other. And I noticed that there was one person still transmitting. So I spun the dial to listen in. I caught him sending AGN AGN…(long pause)... WHOEVER YOU ARE 73 UNTIL NEXT TIME. He was left hanging. Aww.
After that, I heard another station up about 15kHz. He was calling CQ, so I answered back. I chatted with Larry (N5MEP) in Arkansas for a little over 15 minutes! I was challenged to copy him for such an extended period. He was just above my noise floor, and there was significant QSB. His speed was a little under 25wpm.
I’m not sure if it was a more significant achievement participating in my first contest exchange or holding an extended QSO with someone just above my noise floor! I was exhausted at the end of the night!
If you are interested in learning to practice copying Morse code in your head, take a look at Morse Camp. It is a free standalone web application. It runs well on handheld devices and on desktop computers. It should work in any modern browser. Morse Camp initially challenges you with short, common, and easy words. As you become more proficient, it automatically increases the difficulty to include longer, less common, and multiple words.
I am continuing to work with Petru Paler (HB9GKP) to develop and enhance the web application. Petru graciously open sourced the application. If there are features you would like to see implemented, feel free to send me an email. The list of open requests can be found on GitHub.
I have extended the application to be more configurable. Users can customize which parts of the dictionary are active. In the future, I plan to enable users to define a custom dictionary. Users will be able to create a custom dictionary by cut-and-pasting an article or short book into a window that will then analyze the text for unique words. The motivation is to help users learn the sound pattern of words in an article or book so they can later practice head-copying it. There are a number of other features that I plan on implementing too.
First CW QSO:
I am excited to have made my very first Morse code contact April 22, 2018! And portable at that! I forgot the microphone at home. I kid you not! It helped me overcome my hesitation to get on the air after months of practice.
We went out to Randolph State Park, which is at the North end of Tuttle Creek Lake near Manhattan, Kansas (Grid square EM19PK). I appreciated that my XYL came with me. He had fun painting with watercolors and listening to podcasts while I played amateur radio. My uncle Greg, N0ZHE, listened intently 300 miles away to the South and encouraged me via text message to keep trying after an initial failed attempt. I welcomed the moral support!
Unfavorable band conditions did not deter me. I called CQ for about 5 to 10 minutes on 14.035 Mhz using 75watts. Then VE7UBC, the University of British Columbia Amateur Radio Society, came back to me. They were in Vancouver Canada! We had a short QSO. I gave my name, mentioned that this was my first CW contact, and provided the weather conditions at my location. Dan gave his location, radio, antenna, and indicated that my first QSO was going much better than his first one from years ago. That made me feel better.
What I wasn't anticipating was how nervous I became when someone back to me. I was able to copy just fine, but my nervousness caused me to make a lot of mistakes in sending. I especially valued Dan's patience! He mentioned that QSB was making it extra hard for him to copy me. His signal was 559 with little to no QSB. I would have loved to rag chew, but I did not want to test his endurance. hi hi. I thanked him and was left smiling ear-to-ear.
As pictured, you can see that I am transmitting with my ICOM7300 radio into an MFJ magnetic loop antenna. To the left of me, I am sending code with the Bencher BY-2 paddle and using the Begli CW Machine as a keyer. The Bencher paddle isn't the most portable paddle, but it worked splendidly. I was happy to have brought the battery boost. It enabled me to send more than 20 watts using the deep cycle lead-acid battery.
I am hoping to participate in POTA (Parks On The Air) spring and summer 2019. I am looking forward to many more Morse code contacts! I am also forward to using my Lithium-Iron-Phosphate battery. It will be lighter and won't sag under high amperage draws.
Morse Code and the Call of the Hambone:
On my journey to learn Morse Code I have practiced every night. On most nights the rhythmic code has been heard in our living room. I practiced sending code with a paddle and often practiced copying without headphones.
Hamsters are nocturnal. But whenever I practiced in the evening, our hambone, Waffles, would rise several hours before she would normally wake up. She would then proceed to look around with great curiosity and playful vigor.
At first, I thought it was a coincidence, but then after a while, I realized that little Waffles was likely mistaking the stream of swift dits and dahs for a nearby hamster that was extraordinarily happy. If you don't know, hamsters make the cutest little-chirping noises when they are happy and content. Waffles must have been surprised because this neighboring hambone would continue on for more than an hour every night!
Perhaps the frequency I used was close enough to be mistaken for hamster talk, especially when practicing at higher speeds. I am most comfortable practicing Morse code using a tone of 700Hz, and at the time I was practicing at a character speed of 30wpm. About a month ago, Waffles passed away. We miss her dearly! She loved to play on the couch with me and beg for cheese. She even grew to tolerate if not enjoy our affection to hold and pet her.
Her memory lives on. A couple of weeks after her passing, we filled the void in our heart with another little hambone, Gus. He is a Roborovski hamster and is the cutest little bean. Gus is exceptionally afraid and likes to hide when the lights are on. But you know what? He also begins to stir every evening as soon as the music of Morse code fills his little ears.
I asked Jason to illustrate this story. As you can see, he exceeded my expectations by delivering a 5"x5" painting! It will become a part of my amateur radio work-space, and I will smile every time I see it. And as pictured above, I created a QSL card to commemorate our hambone and will send them when out I make contacts with others using Morse code. 73's to all the little hambones out there!
(This Hambone article garnered national attention after I posted it to the 100 Watts and a Wire Facebook group. It was picked by Amateur Radio Newsline on March 23, 2018. Feel free to listen to the broadcast.)
Initially Learning Morse Code:
I did not have anyone to mentor me initially. But through a bit of research, I discovered an excellent book — The Art and Skill of Radio-Telegraphy by William Pierpont (N0HFF). It is a free book available for download as a PDF. I highly recommend it. It is filled with history and practical advice. And it is a fun read!
In his book, I discovered the importance of leveraging the unconscious mind to do the heavy lifting of copying Morse code. And I learned it takes significantly more time to learn to copy than to send Morse code.
Many people start by learning the letters as a sequence of dits and dahs. As they copy Morse code, they count the dits and dahs that make up each letter. With this approach, people will start at 5wpm and slowly increase their speed until they reach 10 to 13wpm. The problem is that they are unable to go any faster despite ample practice or even with heroic effort. Sometimes this ceiling can persist for years! The problem with this approach is that counting relies on the conscious mind. And the conscious mind is much slower than the unconscious mind. The unconscious mind can easily handle 60+ wpm with sufficient practice!
With that in mind, I took the book's advice and focused on acquiring instant character recognition. This means that when I heard a particular sound pattern, I instantly recognized it as a specific letter associated with that sound pattern. To avoid counting while copying, it is recommended to begin learning at a character speed of 20 to 25wpm. If you are still able to count while copying, go faster. For me, this meant starting the learning process at a character speed of 30wpm! It seemed crazy fast!
The next step was to figure out whether the Farnsworth or Koch method was better suited for me. With the Farnsworth method, the character speed is kept above 20wpm, but extra spacing is introduced between the letters and words. The alternative is the Koch method, which starts the learning process with two characters at a standard 20wpm. Once two letters can be copied randomly with 90% proficiency, another letter is added. The process repeats until all the letters, numbers, and prosigns have been learned.
After trying both methods for a couple of days, I settled on the Farnsworth method. I felt too overwhelmed with the Koch method. So I started out at a speed of 30/10wpm — a 30wpm character speed with an overall speed of 10wpm. Like the Koch method, I started out copying two letters send randomly. Once I scored 90%, I added another letter. It took several weeks before I was able to copy all 40 characters. The tricky part was switching to standard timing. I started at 15wpm and then worked on learning to copy faster.
Once I felt that I had some level of proficiency in copying Morse code, I started working on sending. What I learned in the book is that no matter if you learn to send with a straight key, bug, or a paddle, you need to focus on learning proper timing. Without proper timing, you will make it that much more difficult if not impossible for someone else to correctly copy your code even in the most ideal of band conditions. If you don't have someone to help you, use software to check your sending. I was spoiled and used the Begali CW Machine to check my timing.
To sum up, I dipped my toes into learning Morse code using Morse Toad (available for iOS). I did all of my initial learning using Just Learn Morse Code. It a Windows program, but it also works well on a Mac using CrossOver. Then I used a variety of programs to assist in my practice. I used Morse Runner to practice participating in contest-like conditions. I used RufzXP to practice copying call signs. I used ebook2cw to convert short articles and paragraphs into Morse code. And I used Morse Camp to practice learning the sound pattern of entire words.
Practice Log (From 0 to 30+ wpm):
<Download> — Last uploaded July 7, 2019
I have kept a detailed journal of my Morse code practice. It starts three weeks after the start of my Morse code journey. At a high-level, I have strived to practice every day for at least an hour. I try to train at uncomfortable levels at some point in my daily practice sessions. In the log, unless otherwise specified, I am using Just Learn Morse Code and keyboard-copying (meaning I am typing what I hear as I hear it). Things that are bolded are new personal bests as of that date.
If you have an interest in looking at it, there are two take ways that I would like you to have. 1) If you practice every day, it will lead to consistent improvement over time. 2) Consider keeping a log of your practice. When it felt that I was not making progress, it was helpful to look back through my log. At times it did not seem like I was making progress. At others times, it was not happening as quickly as I wanted. In each case, it was helpful to see improvement over time. It was motivation to keep with it and remain persistent.
It is not necessarily a good idea to try to follow my exact path in learning Morse code. You may have different goals than mine. And there are differences in learning preferences. For example, I initially learned using the Farnsworth method, and yet other people will learn better using the Koch method.
I have had many people interested in looking through my log, so I am making it more widely available. If you have any questions about it or find it helpful, feel free to email me. I will try to remember to upload an updated file periodically.
Sharing the joy of ham radio:
My uncle Greg (N0ZHE) got me interested in Amateur radio as a teenager. His passion for working amateur radio satellites was infectious. In 1995, it was the driving force for me to get my no-code Technician class license as KB0TMQ. Greg has positively shaped my life and helped me become interested in computers, software development, photography, electronics, and astronomy.
After my grandfather (KA0OXY) passed away in 2012, my uncle's interested waned, and he sold all of his amateur radio equipment. They had enjoyed amateur radio together since the early 1990's.
After I got relicensed in 2016, I increasing enjoyed the hobby and wished to share my enthusiasm for amateur radio. Perhaps it was destiny to come full circle and rekindle my uncle's passion for amateur radio. In 2017, for Christmas, I gave Greg a special gift. I wrapped up an ARRL General Class License Manual with a small note attached. At first, Greg did not say anything. And that was okay. But it turned out to be a seed.
Greg began to study in 2018. And a couple of months later, he passed the exam and upgraded to a General class license. In May we traveled hundreds of miles together to attend our first Dayton Hamvention. Greg then took up an interest in POTA, started studying for his Extra class license, and has even begun to practice learning Morse code!
I suspect many amateur radio operators share the hobby with at least one family member. It makes amateur radio that much more fun and enjoyable when shared with those we care about the most.
On a personal note:
Some of us work very long hours, but we continue to do it even if we realize how stressful it is. Why, because in a sense we are weak and we seem not to care at times. But then all of a sudden when a 'life event' occurs, say for example, having a heart attack, then you realize just how wrong you were to continue to do things that work against your health. In some cases, you may be too late to admit to being wrong.
On November 27th, 2017 I had a heart attack. I am thankful for so many people and things that happened on the day of and the after my health concern.
I have kept a gratitude journal since March of this year. I do it to reflect on all the good that happens throughout the day. It is a personal moment and not something that I typically share with others. However, I want to share with you my entries for Monday and Tuesday. I hope that it will encourage you to take a moment and reflect on the positive and good things in your life. If you are open to sharing, I would love to see a comment on something that you are grateful for.
November 27, 2017 (Monday)
- I am very very thankful to be alive after my heart attack. Things could have gone so much worse.
- I am thankful that Jason took me to the emergency room with haste and care. I love Jason with all my heart. If I had to leave this world, there is no other person whom I would want more to be at my side when I took my last breath.
- I am grateful to the emergency room staff for their professional and empathic care. Despite other difficult concerns in the ER, their performance was exemplary.
November 28, 2017 (Tuesday)
- I appreciate the head nurse that stopped by and visited me at 2 am. She kept me company for half an hour, answered every question, shared a little of her own life, and expressed such deep empathy and compassion. Words cannot adequately describe how much it meant to me when Jason had to leave for a while.
- I am very appreciative of the head of the Cath lab team. As I cried before going into surgery, she gave me the biggest hug and comforted me. In that moment, I saw the best in humanity. We make the world a better place when we care for each other.
- I felt so much love, compassion, and care from others that I am indebted to everyone. I appreciated everyone's concern and keeping me in their thoughts.
- I am very thankful to learn that there is no evidence that I have any permanent damage to my heart and that I should make a full recovery.
- I am thankful to my mom who took time off of work to be with me. I share a deep bond with my mom. And I love her so much.
- I am thankful that I was able to come home and slowly walk on my own last night.
This incident gave me great pause. It helped me realize the need to spend time away from work and to make time for family, friends, and to enjoy hobbies. And it triggered a renewed desire to achieve a dream as a teenager of making contact with another amateur radio operator using Morse Code. I had tried once before right after college to learn the code, but I gave up too quickly and did not put the time into it.
Getting Started Again:
At the end of 2016, I got started again in Amateur Radio after an 11-year vacation. SDR (Software Defined Radio), DSP (digital signal processing), and new digital techniques have ignited my interest and imagination. Initially, I spent a lot of time using JT65, JT9, and FT8 on 80, 40, and 20 meters. But I have started to focus on learning and using Morse code. I also like to have longer rag chews using Olivia 500/8 or 500/16 depending on band conditions.
I designed both the front and back of my QSL card. I took the photo on the front of the card January 2016. Photography is my other hobby.
I started out with a modest setup for D-Star: an Icom ID-51A Plus handheld transceiver, a 70cm DVAP, and a Raspberry Pi 2B running D-Star Commander. I enclosed the DVAP and Raspberry Pi in a DHAP Mini enclosure so I can take my D-Star set up anywhere there is mobile service.
As pictured below, you can see I have gotten started with HF operations. I really enjoy the Icom 7300 HF radio. And I am using homemade dipole antennas. I use banana plugs to create a resonate antenna beyond 40m. If you can believe it, I can even get on 160m. No one ever said a dipole has to run in a straight line! And because I am on the third floor of an apartment building, I use an artificial ground.
When I first got started with Amateur radio, I was compelled to learn a lot about RFI! I had no idea the adventure that I was getting myself into as I got into HF amateur radio again.
For hunting RFI, I used a handheld AM/FM radio, the MFJ-856 Directional Line Noise Finder, and the MFJ-5008 Ultrasonic detector. I read The ARRL RFI Book Practical Cures for Radio Frequency Interference and the AC Power Interference Handbook by Marv Loftness. Both books helped me understand the fundamentals and get practical information on finding and resolving RFI issues.
My biggest problem was a neighbor with a plasma TV. It was giving off broadband RFI from 1.8 to 10MHz. Luckily, they moved out after a few months. Our landlords forced them out when they refused to replace their TV. It wasn't just interfering with my beloved hobby; it was causing intermittent problems with the Cable TV internet service. (And even going to ridiculous lengths with RF chokes, the RFI could not be stopped since it was being emitted directly from the screen!)
I got our local electric utility to replace two sparking insulators and one burnt out street light across the street. I am left with broadband noise that I have yet to identify and resolve completely. Now I am down to S7 to S9 white noise depending on the band. I can identify no structure to this white noise. If I don't hear you as well as you hear me, RFI on my side is likely the reason. I can knock the noise down S3 to S5 by using an MFJ magnetic loop as a receive antenna. It is inconvenient to set up in our living room, so I don't often get it out.
On a side issue, I worked with a friend and fellow ham to resolve his RFI problems. We worked together to get his electric utility to replace one sparking insulator and one hot wire that was dangerously and loosely connected to another electric pole in his front yard. We also identified a problem with his hot tub and with a long CAT5 ethernet cable. We are still tracking down RFI problems at his place, but we have made significant progress!